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Spring IoC tutorial

What is IoC (Inversion of Control)

IoC is a process to define the dependency on Other Object(Objects they will work with). In the normal scenario, we first inject the dependency and then create the bean(Using New keyword) but in this case, we will first create the bean and then inject the dependencies hence it is called Inversion of Control(IoC).

Responsibility of IoC

  • Instantiating Bean
  • Assembling Bean
  • Managing Bean

Advantage of Using IoC

  • Loosely coupled architecture
  • Configuration and Code is separate
  • Making components free from managing their dependencies
  • A mechanism to share resources throughout the application.
  • Easy to test code
  • No App server dependencies

Components Involved in IoC

  • BeanFactory (org.springframework.beans)
  • ApplicationContext (org.springframework.context)


It provides configuration framework and basic functionality.


It is a subinterface of the BeanFactory, It has all the feature which Beanfactory provides with some extra enterprise-specific functionality like Integration with AOP feature, Message Resource Handling, Event Publication and easier integration with WebApplicationContext.

How it Works

  • Step 1: Business Object is defined
  • Step 2: Configuration Metadata is defined for the given object
  • Step 3: Spring Container reads the Metadata
  • Step 4: Container inject required dependencies in Object (As defined in Metadata)
  • Step 5: Prepare Bean

Type of Metadata Definition

There are 3 ways configuration metadata can be defined.

1- XML(Traditional way)

2- Java Config
3- Annotations (Spring 2.5 Introduced)

Note*: XML injection is done after Annotation injection, hence if properties are wired via both approaches then XML approach will take precedence.

Example of IoC

Step 1: Define a business object

package jbt.bean;

public class Company {
	public String bldgNo;
	public String streetNo;
	public String city;

	public String getStreetNo() {
		return streetNo;

	public void setStreetNo(String streetNo) {
		this.streetNo = streetNo;

	public String getBldgNo() {
		return bldgNo;

	public void setBldgNo(String bldgNo) {
		this.bldgNo = bldgNo;

	public String getCity() {
		return city;

	public void setCity(String city) { = city;

	public String toString() {
		return "Address [flatNo=" + ", bldgNo=" + bldgNo + ", streetNo="
				+ streetNo + ", city=" + city + ", pincode=" + "]";

Step 2 : Define Configuration Metadata(XML) for above object


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<beans xmlns=""

<!-- Here we are using setter injection for DI -->
<bean id="address" class="jbt.bean.Company" name="company1">

<property name="bldgNo">


<property name="streetNo">

<value>JBT Street</value>


<property name="city">

<value>New York</value>





Step 3: Spring Container Reads the metadata

ApplicationContext cpxac = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext(

Step 4: Spring container inject the dependencies

Here container will use Setter Injection to inject the dependencies.

Step 5: Prepare bean

	Company company1 = (Company) cpxac.getBean("company1");
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